The Impact of Environment to Children
You should spend about 20 minutes on Question 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage below.
What determines how a child develops? In reality, it would be impossible to account for each and every influence that ultimately determines who a child becomes. What we can look at are some of the most apparent influences such as genetics, parenting, experiences, friends, family relationships and school to help us understand the influences that help contribute to a child's growth.
Think of these influences as building blocks. While roost people tend to have the same basic building blocks, these components can be put together in an infinite number of ways. Consider your own overall personality. How much of who you are today was shaped by your genetic inheritance, and how much is a result of your lifetime of experiences? This question has puzzled philosophers, psychologists and educators for hundreds of years and is frequently referred to as the nature versus nurture debate. Generally » the given rate of influence to children is 40 % to 50%. It may refer to all of siblings of a family. Are we the result of nature (our genetic background) or nurture (our environment)? Today, most researchers agree that child development involves a complex interaction of both nature and nurture, while some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by biology, environmental influences may also play a role. For example, the timing of when the onset of puberty occurs is largely the results of heredity, but environmental factors such as nutrition can also have an effect.
The From the earliest moments of life, the interaction of heredity and the environment works to shape who children are and who they will become. While the genetic instructions a child inherits from his parents may set out a road map for development, the environment can impact how these directions are expressed, shaped or event silenced. The complex interaction of nature and nurture does not just occur at certain moments or at certain periods of time; it is persistent and lifelong.
The shared environment (also called common environment) refers to environmental influences that have the effect of making siblings more similar to one another. Shared environmental influences can include shared family experiences, shared peer groups, and sharing the same school and community. In general, there has not been strong evidence for shared environmental effects on many behaviors, particularly those measured in adults. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Shared environmental effects are evident in children and adolescents, but these effects generally decrease across the life span. New developments in behavior genetic methods have made it possible to specify shared environments of importance and to tease apart familial and nonfamilial sources of shared environmental influence. It may also refer to all of siblings of a family, but the rate of influence is less than 10 per cent.
The importance of non-shared environment lay hidden within quantitative genetic studies since they began nearly a century ago. Quantitative genetic methods, such as twin and adoption methods, were designed to tease apart nature and nurture in order to explain family resemblance. For nearly all complex phenotypes, it has emerged that the answer to the question of the origins of family resemblance is nature-things run in families primarily for genetic reasons. However, the best available evidence for the importance of environmental influence comes from this same quantitative genetic research because genetic influence never explains all of the variance for complex phenotypes, and the remaining variance must be ascribed to environmental influences. Non-shared environment, it may refer to part of siblings of a family, the rate of influence to children is 40 % to 50%.
Yet it took many decades for the full meaning of these findings to emerge. If genetics explains why siblings growing up in the same family are similar, but the environment is important, then it must be the case that the salient environmental effects do not make siblings similar. That is, they are not shared by children growing up in the same family-they must be 'non-shared'. This implication about non-shared environmental import lay fallow in the field of quantitative genetics because the field's attention was then firmly on the nature-nurture debate. 'Nurture' in the nature-nurture debate was implicitly taken to mean shared environment because from Freud onwards, theories of socialization had assumed that children's environments are doled out on a family-by-family basis. In contrast, the point of non-shared environment is that environments are doled out on a child-by-child basis. Note that the phrase 'non-shared environment' is shorthand for a component of phenotypic variance-it refers to 'effects' rather than 'events', as discussed later. Research in recent years suggested that the impact from parents will be easy to be interrupted by the influence from the children of the same age .That also showed that variations of knowledge that children get from other culture is increasing. A number of interests between, whatever, fathers and mothers or parents and their children are conflicting.
Because siblings living in the same home share some but not all of the potential genetic and environmental factors that influence their behaviors, teasing apart the potential influences of genetic and non-genetic factors that differentiate siblings is very difficult. Turkheimer and Waldron (2000) have noted that non-shared environmental influences——which include all of the random measurement error——may not be systematic, but instead may operate idiosyncratically and in ways that cannot be ascertained. Thus, the question is whether or not quasi-experimental behavioral genetic designs can be used to actually identify systematic non-shared environmental mechanisms cross sectionally and longitudinally. This is the impetus for the current study.
Complete the table now. Choose No More Than Three Words from the Reading Passage for each answer.
Type of Impact to ChildrenRange of Reference to SiblingsRate of Influence
14 background from parents and familyIncluding to all of siblings40%-50%
Shared Environment to 15 less than 16
17 to part of siblings 18 -50%
Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using No More Than Three Words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
Research in recent years illuminated that the impact from parents will frequently be 19 by the peers pressure. It was also indicated that 20 of knowledge that children learned from other culture is increasing. Study has found quantities of competing 21 between parents and children or even between parents themselves.
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes 22-25 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
22. The more children there are in a family, the more impacts of environment it is.
23. Methods based on twin studies still meet unexpected differences that can not be ascribed to be purely genetic explanation.
24. Children prefer to speak the language from the children of the same age to the language spoken by their parents.
25. The Study of non-shared environment influence can be a generally agreed idea among researchers in the field.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.
Write your answers in boxes 26 on your answer sheet
26 According to this passage, which comment is TURE about the current Study of non-shared environment influence to children
A. a little biased in nature
B. not sufficiently proved
C. very systematic
D. can be workable
Teleworking - working remotely from an office- is said to have many benefits for organisations, the environment and society. It provokes mixed reactions from its acolytes and those that experience it first-hand. Whether you like it or not, it is true to say that work is no longer dependent on geography and this opens up a range of opportunities for working in new ways and environments.
The surveys show "that the productivity increase is not primarily because of longer working hours (as is sometimes suggested). Although prevalent, working more is just one of a number of influencing factors, and not the most important." An unusual comparison of the performance of teleworkers with a closely matched control group of non-teleworkers found that not only was productivity higher, but also that absenteeism and error rates were lower.
Two other areas where SUSTEL has added to the economic impact knowledge base is its effect on absenteeism and space utilisation. In the case of absenteeism, over 60 per cent of those surveyed stated that telework had enabled them to work when they were prevented from reaching a work location (usually through illness or transport problems). Around half the cases also identified substantial reductions in space requirements - to the point where one organisation had completely done away with a central office. Changes in non-commuting travel on weekends: home-bases workers, which includes a substantial population of people who are not telecommuters, spend more time shopping out of the home than traditional workers.
Half-time telecommuting could reduce carbon emissions by over 51 million metric tons a year—the equivalent of taking all of New York's commuters off the road. Additional carbon footprint savings will come from reduced: office energy, roadway repairs, urban heating, office construction, business travel, paper usage (as electronic documents replace paper). Although energy utilization will continue to grow as we expand our industry and improve our standard of living, efficient use of energy will always be of prime importance. By telecommuting to work instead of using more conventional methods, there is a great potential to save energy. The three major areas where energy can be conserved are: Vehicle-related materials and resources; Highway-related materials and resources; and work-related materials and resources.
A tremendous amount of energy is required to produce transportation equipment such as automobiles, buses, trains and jet aircraft. If telecommuting is promoted, there will be less use of this equipment and less energy will be required for production, maintenance and repair of this equipment. Fuel resources and gases needed to operate this equipment will be reduced, as well the building and repair of highways and maintenance requires a large consumption of energy, not only in the operation of the highway construction and repair equipment, but also in the manufacture and transportation of the required materials An increase in the percentage of people telecommuting to work will decrease the need for expanded highways and associated road maintenance. The first two areas related to getting to work.
Socially, the SUSTEL research found that most survey respondents felt that teleworking gave them a better quality of life and work-life balance. Many also reported health benefits. A significant number also stated that they were using local services more and becoming more involved in their local communities. The loss of teamwork and team spirit within teleworking populations was tackled through ideas such as Oracle's ‘FUNctional' offices. Designed to increase communication and interaction when people are at the office, they are bright, and focused around a central cafe to stimulate ideas and face-to-face contact.
The finding that many teleworkers report both longer working hours and better quality of life is paradoxical. More time working is usually associated with increased stress, domestic tension and other factors that reduce quality of life. One possible explanation is that, for many individuals, their increased working hours will be less than the time they have saved in commuting. Hence, they still have more time available for family and other activities. For some, the stress associated with commuting (especially for long distances) may be less than that arising from additional working time. Perhaps most significantly, teleworking can in effect create time through opportunities for multi-tasking or greater control of activities. As one survey respondent noted. "Although the amount of time has not changed it has made the weekends freer, as domestic activities can be fitted in during lunchtimes or early morning."
When you work in an office or a cubicle and something goes wrong with any hardware or software you have the option of calling in the IT man. In fact, all of the equipment that you use at the office is supported by technical staff. That means regular updates and maintenance for various and sundry office tools like land-line phones, computers, internet connections, laptops, cell phones, printers, and other office equipment is all up to you When you work from home, you'll surely encounter technical problems and when you do, where do you get the support and help you need? If your computer hard drive crashed today, would you have the funds to replace it?
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-I below.
Write the correct letter. A-I in boxes 28-35 on your answer sheet.
Teleworking has been said to have many benefits for both society and companies. Survey identified that telecommuters spend more time on 28 than those traditional workers on changes in non-commuting travel on weekends. It also is beneficial to environment as it reduces the 29 in the atmosphere from decreased street repairs, city heating, or even 30 as staff in office could send documents 31 Apart from that, other materials such as Vehicle-related, Highway-related and 32 materials will also be saved. Traditionally, large amount of energy is needed to make 33 e.g. Public transportation and private cars. With the arise of telecommuting, resources and 34 will be saved. And conservation goes to the energy and materials consumed in all 35
A pollution B internet energy C paper usage
D construction and maintenance E materials
F shopping G productivity H fuels and gases
I electronically J IT K equipment L company
M work-related N geography
Complete each sentence with correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter. A-F, in box 36-39 on your answer sheet.
36 More working time is often connected with:
37 Oracle's Functional idea aims to improve:
38 When you work at office equipments such as computers and printers are maintained by:
39 When work from home using hardware and software:
A stress and tension.
B consumption of goods.
C the problem of less communication with colleagues.
D many problems when equipment doesn't work.
E transport equipment such as automobiles.
F technical supporters.
Answer the question 40 and choose correct letter A. B, C or D.
Implied in the passage, what is the author's attitude toward Telework?
A surprised by it fast growth
B unconcerned about the future pattern
C believe it is generally positive and encouraging
D worried in the economical problems arise